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The assignment on criminology is concerned with the concept of crime regarding the society. In a society, every individual is provided with some rights to exercise and some duties to fulfill. It is expected from every person to give regards to each other’s rights and adhere to the social standards of the society of ‘live and let live.’ Even so, on many occasions, we discover that human get diverted from such ideologies and get engaged in anti-social attitudes. Hence, the occurrence of these situations makes it necessary for the State to take mandatory steps to safeguard the society from such anti – socials and therefore penalize such lawbreakers. Students can ask the assistance of Criminology assignment help from our expert writers as they take reference of various definitions and outlooks provided by renowned philosophers on criminology. For example, the difference between the lawful and unlawful acts have been noted by the Salmond. As per the definition given by him, a lawful act is doing of any act permissible by law whereas an unlawful act is doing any act which is prohibited by the law of the land which is in force for the time being and which needs to be punished in accordance with the law of that land. Our criminology assignment help service deals with the concept of crime, the definition of criminology, its nature and scope, significance and the views of the different school of criminology.
Why the Criminology Assignment Help?
Students can get the assistance of MakeMyAssignments.com for all types of Law Assignments. Criminology is a scientific way to the study of crimes. Now, this topic has become too vast as different philosophers have incorporated their views in their respective ways. To gather all their points of view a reference to Criminology assignment help service is required. Study of Criminology involves a mixture of social, environmental, economic and psychological aspects which makes it difficult to cover and analyze every single aspect to prepare a final criminology assignment. Hence, we conduct in-depth research on all these issues and try to deliver the researchers and the students with online criminology assignment help. In the criminology assignment help, our focus is on the delivery of a thorough assessment on Criminology along with all its aspects. To have a better understanding of the topic, we try to incorporate all the definitions and outlook of various philosophers of criminology. The expert writers of our criminology assignment writing service delve into all the realms of the topic before they can assist the students in securing good grades. For a better understanding of the students, we have used sufficiently user-friendly languages. Hence, students can seek the assistance of our criminology assignment writing service to help them with their assignment at their time of urgency.
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Understanding the Concept of Crime
It is necessary for the students who are using the writing service of Criminology assignment to get themselves well acquainted with the concept of crime. In the following section, our professionals will help you to get a better idea about the concept of crime and its related chapters.
Crime is the violation of the cherished norms and standards of the society, and if any person does not comply with these rules, then he/she is called as anti-social. Blackstone says that crime is an act done or omitted which is in violation with the public law (BEIRNE, 2013). Later on, when Stephen modified the definition given by Blackstone, he defined crime as a violation of a right with evil tendencies against the community as a whole. There is another philosopher named Sutherland who depicted crime as a symptom of social organization. According to the definition given by Halsbury, crime is defined as an unlawful act against the public order, and such wrongful act must be punished (Mansley, 2014). Keeton said that crime is an undesirable act which could be easily corrected by the State by inflicting the punishment on the offender or any other remedy as per the discretion of the aggrieved party. Therefore, after thoroughly examining the definitions given by different philosophers, we have concluded that there are three fundamental characteristics of crime –
- It is damage caused to the society through any anti-social or unlawful acts of an individual or individuals.
- The duty of the State is to maintain and overlook law and order of such State by afflicting some punishment on the wrongdoer. It is mandatory for the State to take precautionary steps from the commission of crimes.
- The rules which decide about the guilt of an individual must be according to the law of the land in force, for the time being. The definition of crime given by Halsbury is considered to be the most appropriate and precise definition as it includes all the elements of certainty as well as elements which determine the offenders and the volition of crime.
There are three kinds of prominent crime; predatory crime, inchoate crime and hate crime.
- Predatory crime – this crime is discernible as the entire society reacts at the abusing of the sufferer. Some examples of predatory crimes are theft, extortion, dacoity, kidnapping and many others.
- Inchoate crime – these crimes are committed so that they can give effect to some other crime like criminal conspiracy, attempt to grievous hurt, abetment of murder, etc.
- Hate crime – this crime is a bit different from other crimes as in hate crimes the individuals are not the victims, but a community as a whole is victimized. It is quite a particular feature of hate crime that such kind of crime is committed without any motive; a hate crime is usually steered by race, gender, religion, and other ethics. To say it differently, this kind of offense is perpetrated against the weak, or the racial or minor community or the religious groups of people.
Besides these crimes, some crimes are also there in which no direct victim exists; such crimes are known as victimless crimes. These crimes do not directly affect the other people, but still, the law breakers are penalized as per the law, for doing such acts; these actions are considered as illegal because they are opposing the moral and economic interest of the society. In the UK, drinking at a public place, selling prohibited substances like drugs, bestiality, etc. are punishable by law.
With the emergence of the criminology studies, it is attempted to categorize crimes and criminals so that reasonable standard could be achieved for classifying different punishment for the various categories of offenders or crimes.
English Law broadly classifies crimes into two categories – felonies and misdemeanors (Stephen, 2014).
- The crimes which are serious in nature are felonies, and the punishment for the same is either imprisonment for life or death sentence.
- The crimes which are less severe in nature are misdemeanors, and they are punishable with either confinement imprisons for a comparatively shorter period or with fines or both.
After some time, three more categories were added
- A crime against property,
- A crime against a person, and
- A crime against State
In the USA, Crime has been classified under 29 heads, which range from murder to runaway juveniles and narcotics.
Definition of Criminology
Now let’s discuss what Criminology is. The word Criminology is formed by combining two words; the Latin word crimen and the Greek word logia. As per the science of etymology, the meaning of the term criminology is the scientific way of studying the nature, scope, extent, causes, and control of the criminal behavior of the persons in a community.
Donald Taft defines criminology as the scientific analysis and observation of crime and criminals while Penology is defined as the study of punishment and the treatment of the offenders. According to him, the concept of penology existed before the idea of criminology as previously the emphasis of the State was on the punishment and how the offenders are treated instead of the scientific approach regarding the causation of crime. (Zainoddin, 2015).
Sutherland has comprehensively defined the term Criminology; he said that criminology is the body of knowledge of delinquency and that crime is a social phenomenon. He also incorporated the process of making law and breaking law inside the concept of criminology. He explained criminology as the set of verified principles and other knowledge relevant to the crime, reaction to the crime and the process of law (Kautt & Pease, 2013).
Coleman and Norris state that Criminology is the analysis of the nature, perpetrators, and causes of crimes and also comprises of formulation and the enforcement of criminal laws and evaluation of how crimes can be handled in the society (Coleman & Norris, 2013).
Nature and Scope of Criminology
In the criminology assignment, we are necessarily required to concentrate on the nature and extent of criminology. As per the observance of Enrico Ferri, many of the developing countries have adopted an efficient criminal policy so that they can actively involve in protecting the interest of the society from crimes and criminals (Taylor et al., 2013). The Social Defence theory aims at removing crimes from the community, and its success lies in the well – organized administration of the criminal law in that country.
It is the motive of the criminologists to implement a uniform penal system for all the countries and provide the appropriate administration of prisons, courts, reformative institutions and policy to reduce the occurrence of crime. The elements that intensify the crimes or that affects the minds of the offenders to commit the crime must be adequately considered to handle the causation of crime in an efficient manner (Shute 2014).
In criminology assignment writing service, the focal is on the various aspects of crimes and the different measures adopted to deal with the criminals. It also comprises the general study for the improvement of the penal system which ranges from the parole and probation systems to transitional sentence, open prisons and other reformative institutions. The adequate reformation of the criminal as well as helping with his rehabilitation reduces his chances of committing a crime, and hence such an individual may not be a threat to the society anymore. Therefore, criminology helps in the development of the whole society.
The present- day criminologists are united in their opinion that criminology is the scientific approach to deal with the crime and the criminals wherein the effects of the criminality can be efficiently managed by the correct administration of the criminal justice. It is necessary to reform the criminals and treat them individually to terminate the incidences of the criminality.
It has been observed by Cesare Lombroso that criminals are physically inferior and that they vary than the ordinary people. This theory clarifies the concept of present-day criminology. According to Sutherland, an individual is inclined towards acquiring the criminal features when subjected to other criminals or comes in association with them. This theory is named as criminal sociology (Friedrichs, 2015). The psychology of criminals to commit crimes is explained by Professor Jerman. He said that frustrations, anxiety, depressions, and other functional deviations cause mental and personality conflicts in the criminals which in turn gives birth to criminal intention in them. It is necessary that both the concepts of criminology and penology must go conjointly so that the society can be safeguarded from the hazards of anti-social acts. It is the belief of some criminologists that the causes of criminality can be remedied by the community and other environmental and sociological factors.
There are two cardinal principles on which the study of criminology is based (Rovira, 2015).
- First is nullumcrimen sine lege, which means that no individual will be accused of any criminal activity unless such an act is expressly forbidden by law and the individual has the required criminal intention to execute it.
- Second is nullapoena sine lege, according to which an individual can be penalized under the legal system only if such an act is made punishable under the existing penal law of the land being in force. The concept of criminology is an amalgamated study of scientific, social, legal, biological as well as psychological factors.
The sociologists investigate the elements that are responsible for the criminal tendencies in the persons; biological factors are instrumental in causing the criminal tendencies in a person. This theory is named as the Will theory and is supported by Beccaria. He contended that some individuals are born as criminals, they are usually the permanent ones and hence needed to be kept at a distance from the society. Every individual has independent authority over his free will and such habitual offenders resort to unlawful activities on their own free will and intelligence (Taylor et al., 2013).
However, this theory is challenged by Lombroso and Tarde and their contention is that no individual is a born criminal. Every human being is a biological creature who strives to survive in the society by adapting himself according to the environment. Hence, it is only on his failure to accommodate himself in the society or because of the difficulty created by the circumstances that he indulges in unlawful activities; it is the last resort left to him, and not because it was his choice. Rather, the circumstances were such that forced him to step into criminality (Thornberry, 2012).
Hence, in the causation of crime, the environment where a person lives is of great significance. It is observed by Professor Sutherland that with the rapid increase in the industrialization, the growth rate of crime has also accelerated as because of overpopulation, the disintegration of joint families, increase in women employment and advancement of technologies, parental control as well as emotional ties have loosened (John-Stevas, 2016). With the liberal laws of divorce, sexual offenses have risen to a significant level whereas the strong desires for political powers have caused political crimes to grow hugely. Hence, the Criminology study not only limited to the behavioral activities of criminals, but it also comprises of the study of crimes, the causes of crimes and necessary measures to fight back and control crimes. Hence, the approach of present – day criminologists towards crimes and criminals is rather scientific and realistic. They deal with crime by considering it as a social phenomenon and scrutinizes the punishments as either treatment or preventive remedies as its final object.
Importance of Criminology
The latest criminology research work aims at studying and analyzing every criminal case and recommending measures to inspire the feelings of mutual respect, confidence, and cooperation in the offenders. Due to the current penological reforms and liberal laws of punishments, the process to rehabilitate the offenders in the society is becoming successful. The significant achievement that can be seen in the reformation of the criminals into law-abiding citizens is possible with the establishment of parole and probation systems in the present – day penology as well as through intensive aftercare programs. In our writing services of Criminology assignment, the mentioned below are the other significant accomplishments of modern criminology –
- The Criminology study is founded on the assumption of no individual being born as a criminal. An offender can turn into a law-abiding citizen if provided with enough chances to reform. The concentration of the Criminology is on the individual reformation of the criminals, and it is not applicable to the general rules or assumption.
- Criminology study consists of police, judges, jurors, attorneys, detectives, lawyers, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists for conducting a scientific study and for knowledge so that a perfect criminal justice system can be established.
- The goal of criminology is social solidarity; its aim is to achieve social harmony and a society without crime eventually.
- The life of an individual has become more complicated with the technological advancement. The crime rate has increased like cyber crimes, theft, white – collar crimes, smuggling, cheating and much more. Hence, the solution can be found through systematic study and approaches. Criminology has gained success in working on the strategies to meet the new problems of safeguarding the society from the commissions of offenses and building the administration of the criminal systems based on the requirements of the present-day society (Bonger, 2015).
Objectives of Criminology
The primary motive behind the Criminology study is the systematically studying about the law making, law breaking and reaction to the law breaking so that the steps to control the crime can be analyzed. It pays attention to the factors which cause the criminal behavior among the persons and what measures can be used to control such crimes effectively. While scrutinizing the concept of crime and criminals, it also considers different theories and findings of the psychologists, socialists, jurists, psychiatrists, biologists, and economists to attain an efficient solution or for the administration of criminal justice to restraint the criminality inside the individuals (Deflem, 2015).
Therefore, the Criminology assignment help can be surmised with the finding that the punishment must be according to the crime and the offender and not vice-versa. The punishment that is implemented must be according to the seriousness of the crime. The sentencing procedure must highlight the humanist principle. It must be the goal of the penal system to stop the incidences of crimes in the society. However, the core of deterrence must be efficiently established to deter the offenders from committing crimes, and for the other individuals, it acts as a deterrence to commit crimes. Nonetheless, it must be chosen diligently, so that true spirit of humanity is not undermined as harsh and brutal; through punishments, the soul of the offenders is killed which might turn them into an incorrigible and atrocious criminal. Hence, it is necessary to take reformative measures to correct and reform the criminals; for their rehabilitation in the society as law-abiding individuals, appropriate steps must be ensured. Its primary motive is to make the offender to fully understand the gravity of crime that he has committed, which is detrimental to the society to which he belongs as well as for his future. It is the purpose of the Criminology study to systematically implement these ideologies so that crime can be eliminated from the society as far as possible, via analyzing its different causes and possibilities and consistently meeting them.
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