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Role of Energy in the Development of International Trade (OUTLINE)

Role of Energy in the Development of International Trade (OUTLINE)

 Assessment Description
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INTRODUCTORY PART

Role of Energy in the Development of International Trade [the chapter should give an insight into the whole content of the paper. It is advised to make this chapter wide-ranging with some practical examples and controversies] 
 
  • Energy and the International Trade Theory  
  • Energy and the International Trade Policy   
  • Energy Security and its role in development
  • Role of WTO in energy trade
  • Regional Energy Initiatives
THE STORY OF ‘ENERGY’ AND ITS SOURCES
          
  • ‘Energy’ from Mythology through History   
  • Energy and Its Scope
  • Non-Renewable energy sources and its Impact on the Environment  
    • Petroleum (Oil)         
    • Coal   
    • Natural Gas   
    • Nuclear Energy
  • Renewable Forms of Energy and its Impact on the Environment  
    • Wind Energy  
    • Solar Energy  
    • Hydroelectric Energy
    • Biomass Energy         
    • Fuel Cells      
    • Geothermal Energy   
    • Bio-fuels        
  • Energy and Sustainability  
 
THE EMERGING ENERGY GOVERNANCE DEBATE: ENERGY IN WTO LAW AND POLICY
 
  • WTO compatibility of energy related actions that could have an impact on trade
  • energy issues that are covered by the ongoing Doha negotiations and inWTO accessions
  • Is energy a good or a service?[ Members’ schedules of specific commitments on services.]
  • Pollution and climate-change dimensions.
  • Existing rules in GATT/WTO[Both GATT and GATS and applicability of the same to Energy Trade]
    • MFN
    • National Treatment
    • Quantitative restrictions
    • Freedom of transit
    • Agreement of Agriculture
    • TBT Agreement
    • Regional Preferences
  • Rules being Negotiated
    • DDA Negotiations
​​
WTO AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY LAW
 
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) / International Energy Agency (IEA)
  • Energy Charter Treaty[analyze dispute settlement, juxtapose with WTO]
  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • Multilateral Environmental Agreements
  • Regional Level: European Union (EU) and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Unresolved and Controversial Issues[environmental issues etc]
  • Efficiency of the WTO System[special reference to Dispute settlement mechanism and reference to comparison with Energy Charter Treaty]
CONCLUSION
The appropriate forum for energy matters would be WTO with at least one of the following changes brought in.[elaborate the points below]
Towards a WTO agreement on Energy[Members would also have to decide whether such an agreement was to be a multilateral or plurilateral]OR
 
Add energy-specific provisions throughout the existing WTOAgreements[an amendment of each provision for which energy-related aspects are added, and which would have to be agreed according to Article X of the WTOAgreement.]OR
 
Members have to adopt a “decision” illustrating how the rules of the WTO should apply to some specific energy sectors. To be adopted by consensus by theGeneral Council[simpler than amendments]

  

 
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